There were no exclusion criteria for the study. Patients' medical records were examined for their age, medical comorbidities, medication list, surgical history, and postoperative course. Medication lists were examined in particular for the usage of any NSAID, aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, or antidepressants. Antidepressants were categorized as SSRIs, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and “other” class of antidepressant agents. SSRIs included fluoxetine hydrochloride, citalopram hydrobromide, fluvoxamine maleate, paroxetine hydrochloride, sertraline hydrochloride, fluvoxamine maleate, escitalopram oxalate, and clomipramine hydrochloride. SNRIs such as venlafaxine hydrochloride, desvenlafaxine succinate, and duloxetine hydrochloride were also included in the study due to their mechanism of serotonin reuptake inhibition. The “other” class of agents, including trazodone hydrochloride and buproprion hydrochloride, was excluded from analysis of bleeding risk owing to lack of clinically significant serotonin reuptake inhibition.