Identifying a procedure to address lower eyelid retraction (LER) in the presence of an orbicularis deficit is a useful tool for aesthetic and reconstructive eyelid surgery.
To describe and evaluate a surgical technique consisting of a closed canthal suspension and true lower eyelid retractor recession to address LER in the setting of orbicularis weakness.
Design, Setting, and Participants
A retrospective medical record review of patients who underwent the minimally invasive, orbicularis-sparing, lower eyelid recession from January 1, 2010, to October 1, 2012, by one of us (G.G.M.) in an ophthalmic plastic surgical practice. We included 29 patients with reduced orbicularis strength and LER resulting from eyelid paresis related to facial nerve disease, surgical trauma (after blepharoplasty), involutional change, or idiopathic causes.
Surgical intervention consisting of closed canthal suspension and lower eyelid retractor recession.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Surgical results, complications, and patient satisfaction.
The 29 patients included 18 women and 11 men. The mean patient age was 52 (range, 6-72) years; mean follow-up, 11 (range, 6-21) months; and mean preoperative orbicularis strength, 2.7 (on a scale of 0-4, where 0 indicates no function and 4, normal function). The causes of orbicularis weakness included eyelid paresis related to facial nerve disease (11 patients), surgical trauma (13 patients), involutional change (4 patients), and an isolated idiopathic finding (1 patient). In 12 patients, the eyelid retraction was unilateral; in 17, bilateral. A small tarsorrhaphy was added to the surgery in 6 patients with facial nerve disease. The mean eyelid elevation after surgery was 1.80 mm, with only minor complications. Patient and surgeon satisfaction were high.
Conclusions and Relevance
Recent publications have demonstrated the utility of closed canthal suspension and true lower eyelid retractor recession as separate procedures. In the setting of LER with reduced orbicularis strength and/or tone, the techniques can be combined to recess the lower eyelid without disturbing the already compromised lower orbicularis muscle (minimally invasive, orbicularis-sparing, lower eyelid recession). The combination technique is safe and effective and yields excellent results.
Level of Evidence