Accepted for Publication: September 16, 2013.
Published Online: January 30, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamafacial.2013.2463.
Study concept and design: Bhama, Weinberg, Lindsay, Cheney, Hadlock.
Acquisition of data: Bhama, Weinberg, Lindsay, Hohman, Cheney, Hadlock.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Bhama, Weinberg, Lindsay, Cheney, Hadlock.
Drafting of the manuscript: Bhama, Cheney, Hadlock.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Bhama, Weinberg, Lindsay, Hohman, Hadlock.
Statistical analysis: Bhama, Weinberg, Lindsay.
Obtained funding: Hadlock.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hadlock.
Study supervision: Bhama, Lindsay, Cheney, Hadlock.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by grant R01NS071067 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Role of the Sponsor: The NIH had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: This research was presented at the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery section of the Combined Otolaryngological Spring Meetings; April 14, 2013; Orlando, Florida.
Additional Contributions: Chris Sudfeld, ScD, provided guidance with statistical analysis.