Accepted for Publication: December 6, 2013.
Published Online: April 3, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamafacial.2014.1.
Study concept and design: Frigerio, Hadlock, Murray, Heaton.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Frigerio, Hadlock, Murray, Heaton.
Drafting of the manuscript: Frigerio, Hadlock, Heaton.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Frigerio, Hadlock, Murray, Heaton.
Statistical analysis: Hadlock, Murray, Heaton.
Obtained funding: Hadlock.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Frigerio, Hadlock.
Study supervision: Frigerio, Hadlock, Heaton.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Additional Contributions: The first author is grateful to Paolo Cavallari MD, PhD, director of the Human Physiology Section, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy, and Giacomo Colletti, MD, Maxillo-Facial Unit of San Paolo Hospital, Università degli Studi di Milano, for their inspiring influence to pursue facial pacing research. David Ahlgren, PhD, Department of Engineering, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, designed and built the blink detection circuit.