We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Ethics and Public Policy |

Arguing the Ethics of Facial Transplantation

Ashlin J. Alexander, MD; Daniel S. Alam, MD; Patrick J. Gullane, MD; Benoît G. Lengelé, MD, PhD; Peter A. Adamson, MD
Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2010;12(1):60-63. doi:10.1001/archfacial.2009.106.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


While 7 face transplants have been performed around the world, to date, there remains debate regarding the validity of this procedure. We submit that performing a facial transplant—in the appropriately selected patient—is technically defensible and ethically sound. By outlining the technical and ethical boundaries of the debate, responding to the key arguments against the procedure, and describing its motivations and potential benefits, we state our justification of facial transplantation.

Figures in this Article

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?


Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1.

A framework to evaluate the ethics of facial transplantation.

Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2.

Summary of adverse effects of immunosuppression. CMV indicates cytomegalovirus; DM, diabetes mellitus; HTN, hypertension; PTLD, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma1315; and ↑ 2-4×, 2 to 4 times higher.

Graphic Jump Location




Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

7 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
Facial Transplantation. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2016;24(3):367-77.

Care at the Close of Life: Evidence and Experience
Moral and Legal Framework

Users' Guides to the Medical Literature: A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice, 3rd ed
Ethical Considerations