We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Special Topics |

Outcome Measures in Facial Plastic Surgery Patient-Reported and Clinical Efficacy Measures

John S. Rhee, MD, MPH; Brian T. McMullin, MD
Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2008;10(3):194-207. doi:10.1001/archfaci.10.3.194.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective  To survey the existing literature to identify, summarize, and evaluate procedure- and condition-specific outcome measures for use in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Methods  A review of the English-language literature was performed to identify outcomes instruments specific for targeted facial plastic surgery interventions and conditions. A search was performed using MEDLINE (1950 to September 2007), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health) (1982 to September 2007), and PsychINFO (1806 to September 2007). Outcomes instruments were categorized as patient-reported or clinical efficacy measures (observer-reported or objective measures). Instruments were then categorized to include relevant details on the intervention, degree of validation, and subsequent use.

Results  Sixty-eight distinct instruments were identified (23 patient-reported, 35 observer-reported, and 10 objective measures), with some overlap among categories. Most patient-reported measures (76%) and half observer-reported instruments (51%) were developed in the past 10 years. The rigor of validation varied widely among measures, with formal validation being most common among the patient-reported outcome measures.

Conclusions  Validated outcomes measures are present for many common facial plastic surgery conditions and have become more prevalent during the past decade, especially for patient-reported outcomes. Challenges remain in harmonizing patient-reported, observer-based, and other objective measures to produce standardized clinically meaningful outcome measures.

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

32 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
[Surgical management of cutaneous pathomimia. A report case]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2005;50(6):743-5.