This is a prospective randomized study involving 120 consecutive patients undergoing rhinoplasty, face-lift surgery, or laser resurfacing. The study was conducted in an ambulatory facial plastic surgery center. A standard initial consultation was performed, explaining to the patient the nature, the purpose, and the details of the operation and the associated risks and complications of the procedure that the patient was seeking. Before the implementation of the study, a list of the most significant risks and complications of the particular facial plastic surgery procedure deemed most common by the surgeon was formulated, and these risks were communicated during the consultation. All questions pertaining to the procedure were answered. The risks discussed with patients planning to undergo rhinoplasty were as follows: epistaxis, numbness of the nasal tip, asymmetry of the nasal tip and the supratip areas, the nose not being perfectly straight, bruising, and swelling. The risks discussed with patients planning to undergo face-lift surgery were as follows: hematoma, lumpiness or depression of the skin in the cheek and the neck areas, thick scar formation at the incision sites, facial weakness or paralysis, and numbness of the lower half of the ears. The risks discussed pertaining to laser resurfacing were as follows: more than 1 procedure (or session) may be required to improve the rhytids, permanent scarring, herpes simplex breakout, prolonged erythema, and hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation. The patients were assigned to either a group receiving a pamphlet outlining the risks of that particular facial cosmetic procedure (pamphlet group) or a group that was not given a pamphlet reinforcing the risks discussed orally (no pamphlet group). The assignment of patients to each group was done randomly by computer-generated roll of a die. Patients with an even number were placed in the pamphlet group, and patients with an odd number were placed in the no pamphlet group. At no time during the initial consultation were the patients informed of this study. Approximately 2 weeks after the initial consultation, each patient was telephoned by one of us (A.S.M.). During the telephone conversation, the purpose of the call and the objective of the study were explained to the patient. The patients were asked to repeat the risks and the complications of the particular procedure that were discussed during the initial consultation at the surgeon's office. The answers were recorded on a standard checklist outlining the risks of that particular procedure. Demographic information was collected at the initial consultation, such as the highest level of formal education attained, sex, age, occupation, and type of procedure that the patient was to undergo. A statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test and the unpaired t test.