Background The postauricular area is often explored by reconstructive and otologic surgeons. We previously reported on the use of postauricular tissues as a graft for wrapping hydroxyapatite implants in orbital reconstruction. This procedure reduced the incidence of implant exposure, while achieving acceptable cosmetic results. Although much is known about the postauricular area, muscle and fascial relationships and potential variations in anatomy remain ill defined.
Objectives To identify and analyze variations in the patterns of the postauricular muscle complex (PMC) and to study the relationships of the fascial contributions from the components that make up the PMC.
Methods Dissections were performed using 40 fresh specimens. Muscular and fascial components of the PMC were dissected, analyzed, and photographed.
Results The PMC receives contributions from the occipitalis and trapezius muscles, the deep temporal and sternocleidomastoid fasciae, and the superior and posterior auricular and platysma muscles. Major contributors to the PMC were present in every specimen. Minor contributors were more variable in their presence and contributions. The posterior auricular muscle was identified as having several muscle bundles in 1 specimen and absent in 2 specimens (5%). The occipitalis fascia was seen to insert superior to the auricle and to blend with the deep temporal fascia in 3 cases (7%). The platysma muscle contributed to the PMC in 8 cases (20%).
Conclusions This study demonstrated important variations in the presence and contributions of 7 previously known muscular structures and their role in forming the PMC. Seven distinct patterns are identified, and the potential clinical implications of these anatomical variations are illustrated.