We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Special Topics |

Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema After Routine Septorhinoplasty Discussion of Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Prevention

Richard Westreich, MD; Ian Sampson, MD; Christopher M. Shaari, MD; William Lawson, MD, DDS
Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2006;8(1):8-15. doi:10.1001/archfaci.8.1.8.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective  To provide rhinologic surgeons with an understanding of acute negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) and its treatment.

Design  Case report and literature review of all published adult cases of NPPE. Patient factors, anesthetic variables, and outcomes are assessed.

Results  A total of 146 cases in 45 case reports and series were compiled. There was approximately a 2:1 male-female patient ratio. The average age of the patients was 33 years. Fifty percent of patients had surgery on the upper aerodigestive tract, and 8% had intranasal surgery. No patients received laryngotracheal anesthesia, and 5 of the 146 received intravenous lidocaine prior to extubation. One patient had NPPE following laryngeal mask airway treatment, and 2 patients experienced this complication after conversion from monitored anesthesia care to general endotracheal anesthesia; 33.5% of patients were treated with continuous positive airway pressure alone, while 66.5% required intubation and mechanical ventilation. The average time to resolution was 11.75 hours. Three patients died.

Conclusions  It is known that surgical procedures involving the upper aerodigestive tract have a higher risk of NPPE than other procedures. Rapid diagnosis and treatment is necessary to achieve early resolution and avoid significant patient morbidity. A thorough understanding is integral to the practice of nasal and paranasal sinus surgery, especially with the rising use of outpatient and office-based surgical suites. Therefore, we present a review of pathophysiologic mechanisms, possible risk factors, treatment options, and potential steps that can be taken to minimize this potentially devastating complication of general anesthesia.

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

21 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections